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Piping Check according to Chinese Standard

This verification can be used for both phreatic and confined water levels.

Verification is done using safety factor approach and follows formulas:

where:

SFp

-

Safety factor of stability of the soil against piping

ld

-

Length of the waterproof curtain below the bottom of the pit

D1

-

Depth between the bottom of foundation pit and phreatic water level or top surface of the confined water aquifer

γ´

-

Unit weight of soil under the buoyant force

Δh

-

Difference of waterhead between the inside and outside of the foundation pit

γw

-

Unit weight of water

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