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Nail Force

The magnitude of active earth pressure is reduced using a coefficient kn. The recommended (experimentally determined) value is kn = 0,85.

Forces transmitted by individual nails are determined such that a particular portion of the calculated earth pressure is assigned to a given bench. Each nail is then loaded by the corresponding portion of the active earth pressure.

Forces transmitted by individual nails

The nail force is provided by:

where:

b

-

nail spacing

α

-

nail inclination

kn

-

reduction coefficient

Ta,hor

-

active earth pressure acting on a given bench