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Influence of Buckling

The analysis is preceded by the determination of characteristics of an ideal cross-section, in which the effect of cement mixture cross-section is transformed into steel. Slenderness of element is determined as:

where:

lcr

-

element buckling length

i

-

radius of gyration of the ideal cross-section

where:

E

-

modulus of elasticity of the ideal cross-section

I

-

moment of inertia of the ideal cross-section

Ncr

-

standard critical normal force, calculated in dependence on the method set in the "Micropiles" tab

Recounted slenderness λp is determined next:

where:

Rsd

-

design strength of steel (in calculation based on factor of safety design strength is equal to standard strength)

where:

Rs

-

standard strength of steel, entered in the frame "Material"

γss

-

reliability coefficient of steel, entered in the "Micropiles" tab (limit states)

Buckling coefficient χ is determined according to slenderness λp with the help of following formulas: